Classic, Ethnic, & Historical Vibez

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Assata Olugbala Shakur as JoAnne Deborah Byron, married name Chesimard is an African-American activist and escaped convict who was a member of the Black Panther Party (BPP) and Black Liberation Army (BLA). Between 1971 and 1973, Shakur was accused of several crimes and made the subject of a multi-state manhunt. In May 1973, Shakur was involved in a shootout on the New Jersey Turnpike, during which New Jersey State Trooper Werner Foerster and BLA member Zayd Malik Shakur were killed and Shakur and Trooper James Harper were wounded. Between 1973 and 1977, Shakur was indicted in relation to six other alleged criminal incidents—charged with murder, attempted murder, armed robbery, bank robbery, and kidnapping—resulting in three acquittals and three dismissals. In 1977, she was convicted of the first-degree murder of Foerster and of seven other felonies related to the shootout. In 2013, the FBI announced it had made Shakur the 1st woman on its list of most wanted terrorists. Shakur was incarcerated in several prisons in the 70s. She escaped from prison in 1979 and has been living in Cuba inpolitical asylum since 1984. Since May 2, 2005, the FBI has classified her as a domestic terrorist and offered a $1 million reward for assistance in her capture. On May 2, 2013, the FBI added her to the Most Wanted Terrorist list and increased the reward for her capture to $2 million. Attempts to extradite her have resulted in letters to the Pope and a Congressional resolution. Shakur is the step-aunt of the deceased hip-hop icon Tupac Shakur, the stepson of her brother Mutulu Shakur. Her life has been portrayed in literature, film and song. CULTURAL IMPACT: ●A documentary film about Shakur, Eyes of the Rainbow, written and directed by Cuban filmmaker Gloria Rolando, appeared in 1997. The official premier of the film in Havana in 2004 was promoted by Casa de las Américas, the main cultural forum of the Cuban government. ●The National Conference of Black Lawyers and Mos Def are among the professional organizations and entertainers to support Assata Shakur; The “Hands Off Assata” campaign is organized by Dream Hampton. ●Due to her support in the hip-hop culture, Shakur has been alternately termed a “rap music legend” or a “minorcause celebre.”: ■Hip-hop artist Common recorded a tribute to Shakur, “A Song for Assata,” on his album Like Water for Chocolate, 2000, after traveling to Havana to meet with Shakur personally. ■Paris (“Assata’s Song”, in Sleeping with the Enemy, 1992) ■Public Enemy (“Rebel Without A Pause” in It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back, 1988) ■2Pac (“Words of Wisdom” in 2Pacalypse Now, 1991) ■Digital Underground (“Heartbeat Props” in Sons of the P, 1991) ■The Roots (“The Adventures in Wonderland” in Illadelph Halflife, 1996) ■Saul Williams (“Black Stacey” in Saul Williams, 2004) ■Rebel Diaz (“Which Side Are You On?” in Otro Guerrillero Mixtape Vol. 2, 2008) ■Lowkey (“Something Wonderful” in Soundtrack to the Struggle, 2011) ■Jay Z (“Open Letter Part II” in 2013) ■Digable Planets and X-Clan have recorded similar songs about Shakur. ●On December 12, 2006 the Chancellor of the City University of New York, Matthew Goldstein, directed City College’s president, Gregory H. Williams, to remove the “unauthorized and inappropriate” designation of the “Guillermo Morales/Assata Shakur Community and Student Center,” which was named by students in 1989, when a student group won the right to use the lounge after a campus shutdown over proposed tuition increases. The decision resulted in a lawsuit from student and alumni groups. As of April 7, 2010, the presiding judge has ruled that the issues of students’ free speech and administrators’ immunity from suit “deserve a trial.” ●In 1995 Manhattan Community College renamed a scholarship which had previously been named for Shakur, following controversy. ●In 2008, Shakur was featured in a course on “African-American heroes”—along with figures such as Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, John Henry, Malcolm X, and Angela Davis—at Bucknell University. ●Rutgers University professor H. Bruce Franklin, who excerpts Shakur’s book in a class on Crime and Punishment in American Literature, calls her a “revolutionary fighter against imperialism.” ●Shakur is still a notorious figure among New Jersey law enforcement officials. For example, black (now ex-)Trooper Anthony Reed sued the force, among other things, over posters of Shakur, altered to include Reed’s badge number, being hung in Newark barracks, an incident that Reed considered “racist in nature.”In contrast, according to Dylan Rodriguez, to many “U.S. radicals and revolutionaries” Shakur represents a “venerated (if sometimes fetishized) signification of liberatory desire and possibility.

Click here for source

Assata Olugbala Shakur as JoAnne Deborah Byron, married name Chesimard is an African-American activist and escaped convict who was a member of the Black Panther Party (BPP) and Black Liberation Army (BLA). Between 1971 and 1973, Shakur was accused of several crimes and made the subject of a multi-state manhunt.

In May 1973, Shakur was involved in a shootout on the New Jersey Turnpike, during which New Jersey State Trooper Werner Foerster and BLA member Zayd Malik Shakur were killed and Shakur and Trooper James Harper were wounded. Between 1973 and 1977, Shakur was indicted in relation to six other alleged criminal incidents—charged with murder, attempted murder, armed robbery, bank robbery, and kidnapping—resulting in three acquittals and three dismissals. In 1977, she was convicted of the first-degree murder of Foerster and of seven other felonies related to the shootout.

In 2013, the FBI announced it had made Shakur the 1st woman on its list of most wanted terrorists. Shakur was incarcerated in several prisons in the 70s. She escaped from prison in 1979 and has been living in Cuba inpolitical asylum since 1984. Since May 2, 2005, the FBI has classified her as a domestic terrorist and offered a $1 million reward for assistance in her capture. On May 2, 2013, the FBI added her to the Most Wanted Terrorist list and increased the reward for her capture to $2 million.

Attempts to extradite her have resulted in letters to the Pope and a Congressional resolution. Shakur is the step-aunt of the deceased hip-hop icon Tupac Shakur, the stepson of her brother Mutulu Shakur. Her life has been portrayed in literature, film and song.

CULTURAL IMPACT:
●A documentary film about Shakur, Eyes of the Rainbow, written and directed by Cuban filmmaker Gloria Rolando, appeared in 1997. The official premier of the film in Havana in 2004 was promoted by Casa de las Américas, the main cultural forum of the Cuban government.

●The National Conference of Black Lawyers and Mos Def are among the professional organizations and entertainers to support Assata Shakur; The “Hands Off Assata” campaign is organized by Dream Hampton.
●Due to her support in the hip-hop culture, Shakur has been alternately termed a “rap music legend” or a “minorcause celebre.”:

■Hip-hop artist Common recorded a tribute to Shakur, “A Song for Assata,” on his album Like Water for Chocolate, 2000, after traveling to Havana to meet with Shakur personally.

■Paris (“Assata’s Song”, in Sleeping with the Enemy, 1992)

■Public Enemy (“Rebel Without A Pause” in It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back, 1988)

■2Pac (“Words of Wisdom” in 2Pacalypse Now, 1991)

■Digital Underground (“Heartbeat Props” in Sons of the P, 1991)

■The Roots (“The Adventures in Wonderland” in Illadelph Halflife, 1996)

■Saul Williams (“Black Stacey” in Saul Williams, 2004)

■Rebel Diaz (“Which Side Are You On?” in Otro Guerrillero Mixtape Vol. 2, 2008)

■Lowkey (“Something Wonderful” in Soundtrack to the Struggle, 2011)

■Jay Z (“Open Letter Part II” in 2013)

■Digable Planets and X-Clan have recorded similar songs about Shakur.

●On December 12, 2006 the Chancellor of the City University of New York, Matthew Goldstein, directed City College’s president, Gregory H. Williams, to remove the “unauthorized and inappropriate” designation of the “Guillermo Morales/Assata Shakur Community and Student Center,” which was named by students in 1989, when a student group won the right to use the lounge after a campus shutdown over proposed tuition increases. The decision resulted in a lawsuit from student and alumni groups. As of April 7, 2010, the presiding judge has ruled that the issues of students’ free speech and administrators’ immunity from suit “deserve a trial.”

●In 1995 Manhattan Community College renamed a scholarship which had previously been named for Shakur, following controversy.

●In 2008, Shakur was featured in a course on “African-American heroes”—along with figures such as Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, John Henry, Malcolm X, and Angela Davis—at Bucknell University.

●Rutgers University professor H. Bruce Franklin, who excerpts Shakur’s book in a class on Crime and Punishment in American Literature, calls her a “revolutionary fighter against imperialism.”

●Shakur is still a notorious figure among New Jersey law enforcement officials. For example, black (now ex-)Trooper Anthony Reed sued the force, among other things, over posters of Shakur, altered to include Reed’s badge number, being hung in Newark barracks, an incident that Reed considered “racist in nature.”In contrast, according to Dylan Rodriguez, to many “U.S. radicals and revolutionaries” Shakur represents a “venerated (if sometimes fetishized) signification of liberatory desire and possibility.

Click here for source

When Ola Orekunrin was a 22-year-old medical student in the UK, her 12-year-old sister became critically ill while visiting relatives in Nigeria. With no medical facility nearby that could treat her condition, the family attempted to arrange an air evaluation. Orekunrin was shocked to discover that not only was no air ambulance available in Nigeria, there was not one available in the whole of West Africa: “The nearest one at the time was in South Africa. They had a 12-hour activation time so by the time they were ready to activate, my sister was dead.” It was then, she explains, “I started thinking about whether I should be in England talking about healthcare in Africa, or I should be in Africa dealing with healthcare and trying to do something about it.”

Motivated by her sister’s death and the desire to help others with minimal access to trauma care, Orekunrin left a promising medical career in the UK to found West Africa’s first air ambulance service, Flying Doctors Nigeria. Now a 27-year-old trauma doctor and helicopter pilot, Orekunrin’s fleet of airplanes and helicopters have airlifted hundreds of people from remote areas to hospitals. “From patients with road traffic trauma, to bomb blast injuries to gunshot wounds, we save lives by moving these patients and providing a high level of care en route,” Orekunrin says.
“I wanted to find a way that I can facilitate people who were critically ill,” she says. “Get them to see a doctor, and not just any doctor — I wanted to facilitate getting the right patient to the right facility, within the right time frame for that particular illness.” In addition to the distance to health care facilities, there are many other challenges in the region that make air transport critical: “Many of our roads are poorly maintained, so emergency transport by road during the day is difficult. At night, we have armed robbers on our major highways; coupled with poor lighting and poor state of the roads themselves, emergency transport by road is deadly for both patients and staff.”
Orekunrin is proud of her accomplishments, but sees much more room to improve the state of medical care in Nigeria: “Eighty percent of the world trauma occurs in low-middle income countries just like Nigeria. I feel there should be more focus on the trauma epidemic that Africa currently faces… I want to achieve a proper use of the healthcare sector in Nigeria.”
For her impressive accomplishments and determination to fill a critical social need, Dr. Orekunrin was named one of the World Economic Forum’s 2013 Young Global Leaders, the organization’s prestigious group of the world’s top leaders under the age of 40.
To learn more about her remarkable story, you can listen to an interview with Orekunrin on NPR at http://n.pr/1bSA6ay or watch a TED talk by her at http://bit.ly/1khnfl1. You can also visit website of the Flying Doctors Nigeria at http://flyingdoctorsnigeria.com/
To inspire your Mighty Girl with the stories of both real-life and fictional female pilots, visit http://www.amightygirl.com/books/general-interest/transportation?cat=129
For many true stories of women doctors and scientists for children and teens, visit http://www.amightygirl.com/books/history-biography/biography?cat=209
And, for pretend play toys for the budding doctors in your life, visit our “Pretend Play Occupations” section and choose your occupation of interest on the left menu: http://www.amightygirl.com/toys/imaginative-play/pretend-play?cat=508

When Ola Orekunrin was a 22-year-old medical student in the UK, her 12-year-old sister became critically ill while visiting relatives in Nigeria. With no medical facility nearby that could treat her condition, the family attempted to arrange an air evaluation. Orekunrin was shocked to discover that not only was no air ambulance available in Nigeria, there was not one available in the whole of West Africa: “The nearest one at the time was in South Africa. They had a 12-hour activation time so by the time they were ready to activate, my sister was dead.” It was then, she explains, “I started thinking about whether I should be in England talking about healthcare in Africa, or I should be in Africa dealing with healthcare and trying to do something about it.”

Motivated by her sister’s death and the desire to help others with minimal access to trauma care, Orekunrin left a promising medical career in the UK to found West Africa’s first air ambulance service, Flying Doctors Nigeria. Now a 27-year-old trauma doctor and helicopter pilot, Orekunrin’s fleet of airplanes and helicopters have airlifted hundreds of people from remote areas to hospitals. “From patients with road traffic trauma, to bomb blast injuries to gunshot wounds, we save lives by moving these patients and providing a high level of care en route,” Orekunrin says.

“I wanted to find a way that I can facilitate people who were critically ill,” she says. “Get them to see a doctor, and not just any doctor — I wanted to facilitate getting the right patient to the right facility, within the right time frame for that particular illness.” In addition to the distance to health care facilities, there are many other challenges in the region that make air transport critical: “Many of our roads are poorly maintained, so emergency transport by road during the day is difficult. At night, we have armed robbers on our major highways; coupled with poor lighting and poor state of the roads themselves, emergency transport by road is deadly for both patients and staff.”

Orekunrin is proud of her accomplishments, but sees much more room to improve the state of medical care in Nigeria: “Eighty percent of the world trauma occurs in low-middle income countries just like Nigeria. I feel there should be more focus on the trauma epidemic that Africa currently faces… I want to achieve a proper use of the healthcare sector in Nigeria.”

For her impressive accomplishments and determination to fill a critical social need, Dr. Orekunrin was named one of the World Economic Forum’s 2013 Young Global Leaders, the organization’s prestigious group of the world’s top leaders under the age of 40.

To learn more about her remarkable story, you can listen to an interview with Orekunrin on NPR at http://n.pr/1bSA6ay or watch a TED talk by her at http://bit.ly/1khnfl1. You can also visit website of the Flying Doctors Nigeria at http://flyingdoctorsnigeria.com/

To inspire your Mighty Girl with the stories of both real-life and fictional female pilots, visit http://www.amightygirl.com/books/general-interest/transportation?cat=129

For many true stories of women doctors and scientists for children and teens, visit http://www.amightygirl.com/books/history-biography/biography?cat=209

And, for pretend play toys for the budding doctors in your life, visit our “Pretend Play Occupations” section and choose your occupation of interest on the left menu: http://www.amightygirl.com/toys/imaginative-play/pretend-play?cat=508

President and Nuclear Physicist pf Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Dr. Shirley Ann Jackson, pictured here in 1973, was the first African American woman to earn a PhD in Nuclear Physics from MIT (same year as the image).  Mrs. Jackson is also known for holding office as former Chairman of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, appointed by President William Clinton

President and Nuclear Physicist pf Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Dr. Shirley Ann Jackson, pictured here in 1973, was the first African American woman to earn a PhD in Nuclear Physics from MIT (same year as the image).

Mrs. Jackson is also known for holding office as former Chairman of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, appointed by President William Clinton

Malcolm X’s Influence on the Black Panther Party’s Philosophy - History in an Hour

The original “Rainbow Coalition” was an alliance of youth groups that lead to a truce between street gangs in the Chicago area in 1969 headed by Black Panther Party leader Fred Hampton.

“Perhaps his most important accomplishment was his brokering of a nonaggression pact between Chicago’s most powerful street gangs. Emphasizing that racial and ethnic conflict between gangs would only keep its members entrenched in poverty, Hampton strove to forge a class-conscious, multi-racial alliance between the BPP, the Young Patriots Organization, and the National Young Lords under the leadership of Jose Cha Cha Jimenez. Later, they were joined by the Students for a Democratic Society (“SDS”), the Blackstone Rangers, the Brown Berets, and the Red Guard Party. In May 1969, Hampton called a press conference to announce that a truce had been declared among this “rainbow coalition”

In December 1969 Fred was killed by Chicago police!

Click here for source:

The first recruit of the Black Panther Party was a 16 year old named Bobby Hutton. May 2, 1967 Hutton leads 26 Black Panthers in a march on the State Capitol in Sacramento to protest the new gun bill and all are arrested. One year later, at age 17, on April 6, 1968, Oakland police ambushed a carload of BPP members on a side street. An hour and a half shootout ensued, resulting in the death of BPP member Bobby Hutton and the arrest of all others present on the scene. Bobby Hutton was shot more than twelve times after he had already surrendered and stripped down to his underwear to prove he was not armed. The murder of Bobby Hutton was a major event in the party’s history: it incensed them and inevitably made them stronger.
Click to see picture source:

The first recruit of the Black Panther Party was a 16 year old named Bobby Hutton. May 2, 1967 Hutton leads 26 Black Panthers in a march on the State Capitol in Sacramento to protest the new gun bill and all are arrested. One year later, at age 17, on April 6, 1968, Oakland police ambushed a carload of BPP members on a side street. An hour and a half shootout ensued, resulting in the death of BPP member Bobby Hutton and the arrest of all others present on the scene. Bobby Hutton was shot more than twelve times after he had already surrendered and stripped down to his underwear to prove he was not armed. The murder of Bobby Hutton was a major event in the party’s history: it incensed them and inevitably made them stronger.

Click to see picture source:

cultureunseen:

Fannie Lou Hammer
October 6, 1917 – March 14, 1977 (age 59)


(When we say that they don’t make them like this Sister anymore, OMG!
Beaten damn near to death by white men in jail, after being detained on a false charge and she still continued to fight!)

(via doctorpiff)

“Only a fool believes everything he is told.”

—   Ethiopian Proverb (lifelinesproverbs.com)

“Wealth, if you use it, comes to an end; learning, if you use it, increases.”

—   Swahili Proverb

“The key to a healthy body is a good head.”

—   Somalian Proverb